MY TURKISH COURSE - USEFUL ITEMS

Lesson 50:The use of the suffix "Ki" - Conversation: "Going to the bank"-"Bankaya gidiş"



This lesson will focus on the use of the suffix "Ki" and its different meanings in Turkish.

Before we go into more detail listen to this passage carefully.








VOCABULARY/SÖZLÜK

Evlenmek: To marry,to get married
Kahvaltı etmek: To have breakfast
Buzdolap: Fridge
Yanındaki: The one close to....






                                      GRAMMATICAL NOTES


As anticipated the suffix "Ki" has multiple use in Turkish.
Let's see them in details:



Ki - as a Conjunction

This word "ki" here is equivalent to the English words - who, that, which- when joining two ideas in relation to each other.
Note that it is mandatory to use a comma preceding ki in Turkish in this type of usage to show the subject of the sentence clearly.

Examples:

Ayhan, ki sen bugün gördün, benim en iyi arkadaşım. - Ayhan, who you saw today, is my best friend.

Matematik, ki bir çok insan nefret eder, benim en sevdiğim derstir.Maths, which many people hate, is my favorite class.

Ki is also used for joining two sentences together, but this method goes against Turkish Grammar rules.

Biliyorum ki beni seviyorsun. - I know that you love me.
This construction is based on Persian Grammar and closer to European thinking. However the construction shown below comes over as more natural to the Turk:

Beni sevdiğini biliyorum. - The correct method according to Turkish grammar.
The construction Biliyorum ki beni seviyorsun - although understandable- is NOT the natural Turkish method. 

The correct Turkish method uses the -dik Relative Object participle:

Beni sevdiğ-in-i biliyorum. - I know that you love me - [Lit: Me that-love-you knowing-am-I]
sevdiğ- - that loves + -in- you/your + -i - object marker for the verb biliyorum - I know
Thus it becomes that both ideas - "the person" and "their loving" become objects of the verb - I know. This is more suitable to the Turkish point of view.


Ki - as a locative suffix

Most of the time the suffix "ki" usually means - who, that, which - is actually in a locative situation. In Turkish the addition of "ki" to the object located completes the meaning whereas in English the relative pronoun in this relationship is glossed over or not included at all.

Examples:
Bahçedeki çocuk - The child (who is) in the garden.
Elimdeki para - The money (that is) in my hand, The money (that) I've got.
Yanımdaki para yok- I don't have money with me - [lit: money that is by my side.]

Note that the us of the relative "ki" - who, which, that - is necessary in Turkish although in English it could be omitted.

Idiomatic use of "Ki"

This ki is often used in comparison as in:
oysa ki - if it is thus, if that's the way it is, thus, so then
hal bu ki - the condition is this, that is the way it is, so then
These days these utterances are regularly found written as a single word (in truth they are not), and have found a way into the language as such - oysaki - so, then, halbuki - It's this way, like this..

Ki - as a Relative Pronoun

In the completion of descriptive nouns, the suffix -ki can be added to the completed noun and then used in place of the noun + noun completion.

Ali'nin arabası, Ayşe'nin arabasından daha güzeldir.
Ali's car is better than Ayşe's car.
Ali'nin arabası, Ayşe'ninkinden daha güzeldir.
Ali's car is better than Ayşe's (one).
Bizim koltuklar [Koltuklarımız], Fatmaların koltuklarından daha yenidir.
Our chairs are newer that Fatma's chairs.
Bizimkiler, Fatmaların koltuklarından daha yenidir.
Our ones are newer that Fatma's chairs.
Bahçenin domatesi, seranın domatesinden daha lezzetlidir.
Our tomatoes are tastier than the greenhouse tomatoes
Bahçeninkiler, seraninkinden daha lezzetlidir.
The garden ones are tastier than the greenhouse ones.


PARTICULAR USE OF "Ki" AS ADJECTIVE OF LOCATION



The suffix -de(ki), -da(ki) - which is on, in, at

There is really no such suffix -deki in Turkish. -deki is actually two suffixes together, -de plus an added -ki.-de means - on, in, at - while -ki is - that which is
But you will find most grammar books gloss over this construction although it is in constant daily use to make an Adjective of Location.

Examples:

Sokaktaki araba - The car which is in the street - [Lit: Sokak-ta-ki street-in-which-is car.]


The particle "Ki" is also used in everyday language to express:

so ... that; such that:

Öyle ucuz ki herkes alabilir. - It´s so cheap that everyone can afford it.

Would you believe it?

Eve geldim ki kapı duvar. - I came home, but ki would you believe it? ki nobody answered the door.
Elimi cebime attım ki para yok. - I felt in my pocket for it, but (ki - good heavens! - ki) the cash wasn´t there.

Considering that:

Adam üşümüş ki paltosunu giymiş. - The man must have been cold, seeing that he put on his coat.

As, though:

Cevap vermeseydi bile ki ki verdi ki iş olacağına varırdı. - Even if he hadn´t made a reply ki though he did ki the thing wouldn´t have turned out any differently.

When:

Henüz uykuya dalmıştım ki, bir patlama oldu. - I´d just dropped off to sleep when something exploded.


Indicates frustration, disapproval, doubt, or anxiety:

O bana inanmaz ki! - She will not believe me, so why should I talk with her?
Ama bana verirler mi ki? - But will they actually give it to me, I wonder?

Emphasis:
Öyle güzel ki! - It´s more beautiful than I can say!
Öyle bir para döktü ki! - He spent money like it was going out of style!
Araba ki ne araba! - It´s a car and a half!/It´s some car!








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